Thursday, May 20, 2010

The Daisy Flower

It is a herbaceous plant with short creeping rhizomes and small rounded or spoon-shaped evergreen leaves 2–5 cm long, grows close to ground. The flowerheads are 2–3 cm in diameter, with white ray florebts (often tipped red) and yellow disc florets; they are produced on leafless stems 2–10 cm (rarely 15 cm) tall. The lawn daisy is a dicot.

It is thought that the name "daisy" is a corruption of "day's eye", because the whole head closes at night and opens in the morning. Chaucer called it "eye of the day." Daisy is also a common girl's name and is a nickname for girls named Margaret, after the French name for the oxeye daisy, marguerite.

It is not affected by mowing and is therefore often considered a weed on lawns, though many also value the appearance of the flowers. Several cultivars and hybrids have been selected with much larger flower heads up to 5–6 cm diameter and with light pink to purple-red ray florets. Bellis perennis has astringent properties and has been used in folk medicine. In ancient Rome, the surgeons who accompanied Roman legions into battle would order their slaves to pick sacks full of daisies in order to extract their juice. Bandages were soaked in this juice and would then be used to bind sword and spear cuts. Daisies have traditionally been used for making daisy chains in children's games.

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A Device Named Flower Frog

A flower frog is a device used to help arrange flowers. Some were utilitarian metal devices that fit into a vase or bowl and included a number of holes and guides that stems could be fit through for arranging. A flurry of patents followed the metal flower frog popularity, all claiming to save the housewife time and allow her to quickly and creatively arrange flowers. Many other types of flower frogs are art pieces with holes for flower stems and a container for holding water.

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Another use of Flower in Crafting

Pressed flower craft consists of drying flower petals and leaves in a flower press to flatten and exclude light and moisture. Pressing flowers makes them appear flat, and often there is a change in color, ranging from faded colors to a greater intensity of vibrant colors.

The pressed flowers and leaves are then used for a variety of craft projects. They are often mounted on special paper, such as handmade paper, Ingres paper, Japanese paper, or paper decorated by marbling. With meticulous attention to detail each leaf and flower is glued onto a precise location. With a creative approach to the use of materials, a leaf becomes a tree and petals form mountains.

Washes of watercolor painting are sometimes applied to the backing paper before the pressed material is attached to it. It is also popular to mount pressed material on fabrics, such as velvet, silk, linen or cotton.

Petals and leaves can also be applied to wood furnishings using the technique of Decoupage.

The craft gained popularity in the Victorian era and has experienced a revival in the last 30 years or so. The Japanese use pressed plants to create Oshibana Art. Many books and websites with pictures and instructions have been published on the subject.

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Flower Pots that Have a Number of Uses

Flowerpots have a number of uses, from transporting plants to new locations, starting seeds, patio and indoor cultivation of plants, and the growing of tender plants in colder regions indoors. Through the centuries, the use of flower pots has influenced the horticultural use of plants, and the Egyptians were among the first to use pots to move plants from one location to another. The Romans brought potted plants inside during cold weather. In the 1700s, pots were used to ship breadfruit seedlings from Tahiti to the West Indies. Also Orchids, African violets and Pelargonium geraniums were shipped in pots from other parts of the world, including Africa, to North America and Europe.

In the 1700s, Josiah Wedgwood's flower pots were as popular as his famous dinner-ware, they were often highly decorative and used as table center pieces.

In Athens, earthenware flower pots were thrown into the sea during the festival of the Gardens of Adonis. Theophrastus, c. 371 – c. 287 BC, mentions that a plant called southern-wood was raised and propagated in pots because it was difficult to grow.

The top of the flower pot underneath the rim is commonly known as the shoulder or collar.

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The Definition of Vase

The vase (pronounced /ˈvɑːz/, /ˈveɪs/, or /ˈveɪz/) is an open container, often used to hold cut flowers. It can be made from a number of materials including ceramics and glass. The vase is often decorated and thus used to extend the beauty of its contents.

Vases are defined as having a certain anatomy. Lowest is the foot, a distinguishable base to the piece. The design of the base may be bulbous, flat, carinate or another shape. Next, the body, which forms the main and often largest portion of the piece. Resting atop the body is the shoulder, where the body curves inward. Then the neck, where the vase is given more height. Lastly, the lip, where the vase flares back out at the top. All these attributes can be seen in the pictures at right. Many vases are also given handles, though no examples are shown here. Today, the shapes of vases have evolved from the conventional ones to modern designs and shapes.

The vase has also developed as an art medium unto itself. The ancient Greeks famously used vases to depict scenes. It has since been developed and in 2003 the winner of the Turner Prize was Grayson Perry, for vase art. It is also a Norwegian word for going relatively slowly with out any special plan for where to go or what to do.

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The Use of Sesame

Sesame (Sesamum indicum) (pronounced /ˈsɛsəmi/) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum. Numerous wild relatives occur in Africa and a smaller number in India. It is widely naturalized in tropical regions around the world and is cultivated for its edible seeds, which grow in pods. The flowers of the sesame seed plant are yellow, though they can vary in color with some being blue or purple.

Sesame is grown primarily for its oil-rich seeds, which come in a variety of colors, from cream-white to charcoal-black. In general, the paler varieties of sesame seem to be more valued in the West and Middle East, while the black varieties are prized in the Far East. The small sesame seed is used whole in cooking for its rich nutty flavour (although such heating damages their healthful polyunsaturated fats), and also yields sesame oil. Sesame seeds are sometimes added to breads, including bagels and the tops of hamburger buns. Sesame seeds may be baked into crackers, often in the form of sticks. Sesame seeds are also sprinkled onto some sushi style foods.

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The Health Benefits Associated with Sunflower Oil

Sunflower oil is the non-volatile oil expressed from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds. Sunflower oil is commonly used in food as frying oil, and in cosmetic formulations as an emollient. There are a variety of health benefits associated with the consumption of sunflower oil.

Diet and cardiovascular benefits
Sunflower oil is high in the essential vitamin E and low in saturated fat. The two most common types of sunflower oil are linoleic and high oleic. Linoleic sunflower oil is a common cooking oil that has high levels of the essential fatty acids called polyunsaturated fat. It is also known for having a clean taste and low levels of trans fat. High oleic sunflower oils are classified as having monounsaturated levels of 80% and above. Newer versions of sunflower oil have been developed as a hybrid containing linoleic acid. They have monounsaturated levels lower than other oleic sunflower oils. The hybrid oil also has lower saturated fat levels than linoleic sunflower oil. Sunflower oil of any kind has been shown to have cardiovascular benefits as well. Diets combined with a low fat content and high levels of oleic acid have been suggested to lower cholesterol which, in turn, results in a smaller risk of heart disease. Sunflower oils fit this criteria. Studies of adults suggested that a balanced diet in which small quantities of saturated fats are replaced with sunflower oil has detectable cholesterol-reducing benefits. Research suggests that lower cholesterol levels can be caused by balances of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Sunflower oil may help with this balance.

Restaurant and food industry uses
Restaurants and food manufacturers are becoming aware of the health benefits of sunflower oil. The oil can be used in conditions with extremely high cooking temperatures. It may also help food stay fresher and healthier for longer periods of time. Food manufacturers are starting to use sunflower oil in an effort to lower the levels of trans fat in mass produced foods. A number of common snack foods currently contain sunflower oil, including NewYork Fries French fries, Majans BHUJA Mix healthy snacks, the Sri Lankan style Bombay Mix - Rani Mix, Kettle Chips, Sun Chips, Sunflower Chips, Ruffles, Walkers and Lay's potato chips; the recipe of the latter was modified in late 2006 in order to include the oil.

Sunflower oil as skin protection
Sunflower oil, like other oils, can retain moisture in the skin. It may also provide a protective barrier that resists infection in pre-term infants. Studies using sunflower oil have been conducted involving low birth weight pre-term infants that are often susceptible to infection due to their underdeveloped skin. The study determined that infants receiving a daily skin treatment of sunflower oil were 41% less likely to develop infections in hospital.

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The Sunflower Seed

The sunflower seed is the fruit of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus). The term "sunflower seed" is actually a misnomer when applied to the seed in its pericarp (hull). Botanically speaking, it is more properly referred to as an achene. When dehulled, the edible remainder is called the sunflower kernel.

For commercial purposes, sunflower seeds are usually classified by the pattern on their husks. If the husk is solid black, the seeds are called black oil sunflower seeds. The crops may be referred to as oilseed sunflower crops. These seeds are usually pressed into sunflower oil. These seeds are considered the seed of choice for bird feeders.

If the husks are striped, the seeds are called striped sunflower seeds or "stripers." Due to their lower oil content, the crops are called non-oilseed sunflower crops. Striped sunflower seeds are primarily used for food; as a result, they may be called confectionery sunflower seeds.

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The Particular Usages of Greenhouse

Greenhouses protect crops from too much heat or cold, shield plants from dust storms and blizzards, and help to keep out pests. Light and temperature control allows greenhouses to turn inarable land into arable land, thereby improving food production in marginal environments.

Because greenhouses allow certain crops to be grown throughout the year, greenhouses are increasingly important in the food supply of high latitude countries. One of the largest greenhouse complexes in the world is in Almeria, Spain, where greenhouses cover almost 50,000 acres (200 km2). Sometimes called the sea of plastics.

Greenhouses are often used for growing flowers, vegetables, fruits, and tobacco plants. Bumblebees are the pollinators of choice for most greenhouse pollination, although other types of bees have been used, as well as artificial pollination. Hydroponics can be used in greenhouses as well to make the most use of the interior space.

Besides tobacco, many vegetables and flowers are grown in greenhouses in late winter and early spring, and then transplanted outside as the weather warms. Started plants are usually available for gardeners in farmers' markets at transplanting time. Special greenhouse varieties of certain crops such as tomatoes are generally used for commercial production.

The closed environment of a greenhouse has its own unique requirements, compared with outdoor production. Pests and diseases, and extremes of heat and humidity, have to be controlled, and irrigation is necessary to provide water. Significant inputs of heat and light may be required, particularly with winter production of warm-weather vegetables.

Because the temperature and humidity of greenhouses must be constantly monitored to ensure optimal conditions, a wireless sensor network can be used to gather data remotely. The data is transmitted to a control location and used to control heating, cooling, and irrigation systems.

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The Conservatory of Flowers

The Conservatory of Flowers is a large botanical greenhouse in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park, constructed in 1878. It houses an important collection of exotic plants. It is the oldest building in Golden Gate Park and the oldest municipal wooden conservatory remaining in the United States. It is also one of the first municipal conservatories constructed in the country. For these distinctions and for its associated historical, architectural, and engineering merits, the Conservatory of Flowers is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the California Register of Historic Places, is a California Historical Landmark, and a San Francisco Designated Landmark.

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Petunia is a widely-cultivated genus of flowering plants of South American origin, closely related with tobacco, cape gooseberries, tomatoes, deadly nightshades, potatoes and chili peppers; in the family Solanaceae. The popular flower derived its name from French, which took the word petun, meaning "tobacco," from a Tupi-Guarani language. Most of the varieties seen in gardens are hybrids (Petunia × hybrid).

Several categories of Petunia:


This type of petunias has the largest flowers, up to 4 inches in diameter. Of all the petunias these have the widest variety of forms and colors but are the most likely to be damaged by heavy rain. There are four types of grandiflora and they are classified by their colours, namely, ‘Daddy Series’ (shades of pink and purple), ‘Merlin Blue Morn’ (blue and white), ‘Supercascade Series’ (many colours) and ‘Ultra Series’ (many colours including bi-colour).

Hedgiflora (spreading)

Hedgiflora or spreading petunias (sometimes called ground-cover) are characterised by their low height (usually about six inches), but a large spread (about three to four feet). They will cover a large area provided they have adequate water and fertilisation. ‘Purple Wave’ was the first introduced cultivar of spreading petunias and grows to a height of 4 inches. ‘Tidal Wave’ is another spreading type of petunia, but is much taller (between sixteen and twenty two inches). ‘Opera Supreme’ is a cultivar with large flowers.


Multiflora compared with grandiflora are half the size of 2 inches in diameter, are not easily damaged in heavy rain and can tolerate more sun. Multiflora petunias cultivars include: 'Carpet Series "(many colors),' Surfinia Series' (pink, blue, purple and white), and 'Wave Series' (pink, coral and purple). They spread quickly and are ideal for baskets.


Milliflora are the smallest of the petunias and about 1 inch across. These are prettiest when mixed with other plants in containers, along garden beds, and edges. Milliflora are available in 'Fantasy Series' (red, purple, pink) and are the easiest to find. 'Supertunia Mini Series' (blue, pink, lilac, purple and white) are also available in the milliflora category. They tolerate harsh weather better when compared with grandifloras and multifloras.

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Privet was originally the name for the European semi-evergreen shrub Ligustrum vulgare, and later also for the more reliably evergreen Ligustrum ovalifolium (Japanese privet), used extensively for privacy hedging. (It is often suggested that the name privet is related to private, but the OED states that there is no evidence to support this). The term is now used for all members of the genus Ligustrum, which includes about 40-50 species of evergreen, semi-evergreen or deciduous shrubs and small trees, native to Europe, north Africa, Asia and Australasia, with the centre of diversity in China, the Himalayas, Japan and Taiwan. The generic name originated in Latin and was applied by Pliny the Elder (23 CE – 79) to L. vulgare. The genus is placed in the olive family, Oleaceae.

The flowers are small and fragrant and borne in panicles. They have four curled-back petals and two high stamens with yellow or red anthers, between which is the low pistil; the petals and stamens fall off after the flower is fertilized, leaving the pistil in the calyx tube. Flowering starts after 330 growing degree days. The fruits, borne in clusters, are small purple to black drupes. The fruits of some species are mildly poisonous to humans.

Privet is one of several plants which are poisonous to horses. In some parts of the world where they are not native, some privet species have become invasive weeds, spreading into wilderness areas and displacing native species. This is particularly a problem in North America, where no species of the genus occurs naturally. Privet is a huge problem in New Zealand. It is banned from sale or cultivation in New Zealand due to the effects of its pollen on asthma sufferers. Privet pollen is known to cause asthma and eczema in sufferers. Privet can be removed by contacting the local government to report its presence.

36% of respondents to a survey of gardeners in the UK said that that privet would put them off buying a property.

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What can be categorized as Ornamental Plants?

Ornamental plants or garden plants are typically grown in the flower garden or as house plants. Most commonly they are grown for the display of their flowers. Other common ornamental features include leaves, scent, fruit, stem and bark. In some cases, unusual features may be considered ornamental, such as the prominent and rather vicious thorns of Rosa sericea. In all cases, their purpose is the enjoyment of gardeners and visitors. Ornamental plants may also be used for landscaping, and for cut flowers.The adequate spacing between pots of plants prevents them from competing for sunlight.

Similarly trees may be called ornamental trees. This term is used when they are used as part of a garden setting, for instance for their flowers, their shapes or for other attractive characteristics. By comparison, trees used in larger landscape effects such as screening and shading, or in urban and roadside plantings, are called amenity trees.

For plants to be considered as ornamental, they may require specific work and activity by a gardener. For instance, many plants cultivated for topiary and bonsai would only be considered as ornamental by virtue of the regular pruning carried out on them by the gardener, and they may rapidly cease to be ornamental if the work was abandoned.

Ornamental plants and trees are distinguished from utilitarian and crop plants, such as those used for agriculture and vegetable crops, and for forestry or as fruit trees. This does not preclude any particular type of plant being grown both for ornamental qualities in the garden, and for utilitarian purposes in other settings. Thus lavender is typically grown as an ornamental plant in gardens, but may also be grown as a crop plant for the production of lavender oil.

Other types of ornamental plants include the lily, rose, morning glory and the pink oak.

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The Witch Hazel

Witch-hazel is a genus of flowering plants in the family Hamamelidaceae, with three species in North America (H. ovalis, H. virginiana and H. vernalis), and one each in Japan (H. japonica) and China (H. mollis). The North American species are sometimes called winterbloom.

They are deciduous shrubs or (rarely) small trees growing to 3–8 m tall, rarely to 12 m tall. The leaves are alternately arranged, oval, 4–16 cm long and 3–11 cm broad, with a smooth or wavy margin. The horticultural name means "together with fruit"; its fruit, flowers, and next year's leaf buds all appear on the branch simultaneously, a rarity among trees. H. virginiana flowers in the fall of the year. The flowers of the other species are produced on the leafless stems in winter, thus one alternative name for the plant, "Winterbloom". Each flower has four slender strap-shaped petals 1–2 cm long, pale to dark yellow, orange, or red. The fruit is a two-part capsule 1 cm long, containing a single 5 mm glossy black seed in each of the two parts; the capsule splits explosively at maturity in the autumn about 8 months after flowering, ejecting the seeds with sufficient force to fly for distances of up to 10 m, thus another alternative name "Snapping Hazel".[3]

The name Witch in witch-hazel has its origins in Middle English wiche, from the Old English wice, meaning "pliant" or "bendable". Hazel is derived from the use of the twigs as divining rods, just as hazel twigs were used in England. This use may also have, by folk etymology, influenced the "witch" part of the name.

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The History of the Ukrainian Wreath

The Ukrainian wreath (Ukrainian: вінок, vinok) is a headdress made from leaves, flowers, and branches worn by girls and young unmarried women. The wreath may be part of a tradition dating back to the old East Slavic customs that predate the Christianization of Rus. The flower wreath remains a part of the Ukrainian national costume, and is worn on festive occasions and on holy days.

On the day of Ivana Kupala, young women placed their wreaths in the water with a lit-up candle, foretelling their romantic future by how the wreath flowed down the river or lake. From the wreath's direction, the girl could tell whom she would marry: if the wreath stayed in one spot and did not float down the water, she would not marry; if it went under, she would die; if the candle went out, misfortune would follow. The young men would dive into the water, trying to retrieve the vinok of the girl each loved. One of the ritual Kupala songs says, "Who will catch the wreath will catch the girl, who will get the wreath will become mine." It dates back to pre-Christian times when it was thought that the headdress would protect girls from evil spirits. The ceremonial, religious value diminished, and was later replaced as a national character of girlhood: to lose a wreath in folk songs and traditions means for a maiden to transition into womanhood.

In his book The Golden Bough, mythology scholar James George Frazer first claimed that Ivan Kupala Day (John the Baptist Day), celebrated in Ukraine and Russia shortly after the summer solstice, and closely associated with the wreath in Ukraine, was in fact originally a pagan fertility rite.

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The Origins of Wreath

A wreath is an assortment of flowers, leaves, fruits, twigs and/or various materials that is constructed to resemble a ring. They are used typically as Christmas decorations to symbolize the coming of Christ, also known as the Advent season in Christianity. They are also used as festive headdresses as attire in ceremonial events in many cultures around the globe. Wreaths have much history and symbolism associated with them. They are usually made from evergreens and symbolize strength, as evergreens last even throughout the harshest winters. Bay laurel may also be used, and these wreaths are known as laurel wreaths. The circular shape of the wreath is seen as a common symbol of eternity. The use of wreaths varies by culture, tradition and religions. In Christianity, it is used to prepare for Jesus’ birth and in many cultures around the world, wreaths are used in weddings as a headdress. The history behind wreaths dates back thousands of years and much of the symbolism lies with Greek mythology, Roman tradition with the present day usage being focused on Advent and for festive decor.

In the Greco-Roman world, wreaths were used as an adornment that could represent a person’s occupation, rank, their achievements and status. The wreath that was commonly used was the laurel wreath. The use of this wreath arose from the Greek myth involving Apollo, Zeus’ son and the god of life and light, who fell in love with the nymph Daphne. When he pursued her she fled and asked the river god Peneus to help her, in which Peneus turned her into a laurel tree. From that day forth, Apollo wore a wreath of laurel on his head. This became associated with what Apollo embodied; victory, achievement and status and would later become one of the most commonly used symbols to address achievement throughout Greece and Rome.

The laurel wreath was also used to crown victors at the Pythian games dating back to the 6th century BCE and was later used in the Olympics as well. In present day society, the use of the laurel wreath is still honoured as to follow tradition. Olympic medals today are designed with a sprig of laurel engraved to pay homage to the first Olympic games. A more recent example is the coins minted for the 2004 games that were help in Athens, Greece. They featured an olive wreath on them, as well as the victors were crowned with an actual laurel wreath.

The Romans use of laurel wreaths echo the Greek traditions. The wreath was a symbol in the arts, literature, government and education in Roman society. In the arts, it expressed that one was valued and respected with a laurel wreath resting atop one’s head. Ovid, the famous Roman poet, is almost always depicted with laurel in his hair. Kings in both Greece and Rome dawned the laurel wreath to illustrate sovereignty. Julius Caesar for example, proclaimed the laurel wreath "to be a symbol of the supreme ruler." The wreaths worn by kings were reminiscent of the traditional laurel wreath by the shape and its connotation yet were embellished with gold and gems. This eventually led to the modern day crown.

Since the classical use and symbolism if wreaths, the meaning and representation has taken on differing views, depending on the culture. In Christianity, wreaths are used to prepare for the Advent season or the ‘coming of Christ. The first known association with these now modern day wreaths dates back to the Lutherans in Germany in the 16th century. Johann Wichem used a wreath made from a cart wheel to educate children about the meaning and purpose of Christmas, as well as to help them count its approach. For every Sunday of Advent, starting with the fourth Sunday before Christmas, he would put a white candle in the wreath and for every day in between he would use a red candle. The Advent wreath is constructed of evergreens to represent everlasting life brought through Jesus and the circular shape of the wreath represents God himself, with no beginning and no end. The Advent wreath is now a popular symbol in preparation for the coming of Christ, to mark the beginning of the Christian Church’s year and as décor during the Christmas festivities.

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About the Term of "Flower Bouquet"

A flower bouquet is a collection of flowers in a creative arrangement. There are different kinds including nosegay, crescent, and cascading bouquets. Flower bouquets are often given for special occasions such as birthdays or anniversaries. They are also used extensively in weddings. Traditionally the bride will hold the bouquet, and the maid of honor will hold it during the ceremony. After the wedding the bride will toss it over her shoulder, and it is believed that whoever catches the bouquet is the next in line to be married. This practice may be related to the Golden Apple of Discord myth.

Even before flower bouquets were used by brides in wedding they were used in a different form of art. They appeared as early as the 17th century and possibly earlier. Flower bouquets were captured in paintings and on pottery as decorations.

"The art of arranging flowers was first documented in the 17th century, when the Dutch, in particular, painted wonderful informal arrangements of flowers..."[1]

"In the 18th century, arrangements were used to decorate the houses of the wealthy families and the aristocracy..."[1]

In years past, as a matter of tradition, an upper class bride was required to hold a bouquet of roses or flowers as she walked down the aisle to prevent body odor from spreading and to drive away evil spirits.

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What is Rosette?

A rosette is a round, stylized flower design, used extensively in sculptural objects from antiquity. Appearing in Mesopotamia and used to decorate the funeral stele in Ancient Greece. Adopted later in Romaneseque and Renaissance, and also common in the art of Central Asia, spreading as far as India where it is used as a decorative motif in Greco-Buddhist art.

The rosette derives from the natural shape of a rosette in botany, formed by leaves radiating out from the stem of a plant and visible even after the flowers have withered. The formalised flower motif is often in carved in stone or wood to create decorative ornaments for architecture and furniture. A common motif in metalworking, jewelry design and the applied arts at the intersection of two materials, or to form a decorative border.

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A Short Essay about Floral Heliotropism

Heliotropic flowers track the sun's motion across the sky from East to West. During the night, the flowers may assume a random orientation, while at dawn they turn again towards the East where the sun rises. The motion is performed by motor cells in a flexible segment just below the flower, called a pulvinus. The motor cells are specialized in pumping potassium ions into nearby tissues, changing their turgor pressure. The segment flexes because the motor cells at the shadow side elongate due to a turgor rise. Heliotropism is a response to blue light.

Some solar tracking plants are not purely heliotropic: in those plants the change of orientation is an innate circadian motion triggered by light, which continues for one or more periods if the light cycle is interrupted.

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The Tuberose

The tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa) is a perennial plant of the agave family Agavaceae, extracts of which are used as a middle note in perfumery. The common name derives from the Latin tuberosa, meaning swollen or tuberous in reference to its root system. It consists of about 12 species. Polianthes means "grey flower".

The tuberose is a night-blooming plant thought to be native to Mexico along with every other species of Polianthes. The Aztecs called it Omixochitl [oh me' zu che' tl] or bone flower.

It is a prominent plant in Indian culture and mythology. The flowers are used in wedding ceremonies, garlands, decoration and various traditional rituals. Its Hindi name is "Rajnigandha", though it is sometimes mistakenly referred to as "Raat ki Rani" ("Queen of the Night"), which is really Cestrum nocturnum. The name Rajnigandha means "night-fragrant" (rajni=night; gandha=fragrance). In Bengali, it is called "Rojoni-Gondha", meaning "Scent of the Night". In parts of South India, it is known as "Sugandaraja", which translates to "king of fragrance/smell". In Singapore it is called Ye Lai Xiang, which means "fragrance that comes at night" in Mandarin. In Indonesia it is called "bunga sedap malam", meaning night fragrant flower. In Tamil Nadu it is called as Sambangi or nilasambangi and traditionally used in all type of garlanding especially in south Indian marriages. In Cuba it is called "azucena" which is the name given to amaryllis in Mexico.

In Iran the tuberose is known as "Gole Maryam" ("Mary flower") and the oil extracted from the flower is used as a perfume.

The tuberose is also used traditionally in Hawaii to create Leis and was considered a funeral flower in Victorian times. Its scent is described as a complex, exotic, sweet, floral.

The tuberose grows in elongated spikes up to 45 cm (18 in) long that produce clusters of fragrant waxy white flowers that bloom from the bottom towards the top of the spike. It has long, bright green leaves clustered at the base of the plant and smaller, clasping leaves along the stem.

Members of the closely-related genus Manfreda are often called "tuberoses".

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Tuesday, May 18, 2010

What is Meant by Inflorescence?

An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Strictly, it is the part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed and which is accordingly modified. The modifications can involve the length and the nature of the internodes and the phyllotaxis, as well as variations in the proportions, compressions, swellings, adnations, connations and reduction of main and secondary axes.

The stem holding the whole inflorescence is called a peduncle and the main stem holding the flowers or more branches within the inflorescence is called the rachis. The stalk of each single flower is called a pedicel.

The fruiting stage of an inflorescence is known as an infructescence.

A flower that is not part of an inflorescence is called a solitary flower and its stalk is also referred to as a peduncle.

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The Natural Components of Flower Nectar

Although it’s main ingredient is natural sugar (i.e., sucrose (table sugar), glucose, and fructose), nectar is a brew of many chemicals. For example, the Nicotiana attenuata, a tobacco plant native to the US state of Utah, uses several volatile aromas to attract pollinating birds and moths. The strongest such aroma is benzyl acetone, but the plant also adds bitter nicotine, which is less aromatic and therefore may not be detected by the bird until after taking a drink. Researchers speculate the purpose of this addition is to drive the bird away after only a sip, motivating it to visit other plants to fill its hunger, and therefore maximizing the pollination efficiency gained by the plant for a minimum nectar output. Neurotoxins such as aesculin are present in some nectars such as that of the California Buckeye.

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What is Nectar?

Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants. It is produced either by the flowers, in which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists providing anti-herbivore protection. It is produced in glands called nectaries.

Nectar is an economically important item, the sugar source for honey. It is also useful in agriculture and horticulture because the adult stages of many predatory insects, as well as hummingbirds and butterflies, feed on nectar.

Nectar is derived from Latin nectar "drink of the gods", which in turn has its origins in the Greek word νέκταρ (néktar), presumed to be a compound of the elements nek- "death" and -tar "overcoming". The earliest recorded use of its current meaning, "sweet liquid in flowers", is 1609.

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Monday, May 17, 2010

Tropaeolum majus

Tropaeolum majus (Garden Nasturtium, Indian Cress or Monks Cress) is a flowering plant in the family Tropaeolaceae, originating in South America in the Andes from Bolivia north to Colombia. It is of cultivated, probably hybrid origin, with possible parent species including T. minus, T. moritzianum, T. peltophorum, and T. peregrinum.

It is a herbaceous annual plant with trailing stems growing to 1 m long or more. The leaves are large, nearly circular, 3-15 cm diameter, green to glaucous green above, paler below; they are peltate, with the 5-30 cm long petiole near the middle of the leaf, with several veins radiating to the smoothly rounded or slightly lobed margin.

The flowers are 2.5–6 cm diameter, with five petals, eight stamens, and a 2.5–3 cm long nectar spur at the rear; they vary from yellow to orange to red, frilled and often darker at the base of the petals. The fruit is 2 cm broad, three-segmented, each segment with a single large seed 1–1.5 cm

It is widely cultivated, both as an ornamental plant and as a medicinal plant.
Garden Nasturtiums are grown for their flowers, and also because both their leaves and flowers are edible; they can be used in salads, imparting a delicately peppery taste. The seeds are also edible, and can be used as a caper substitute.It is listed as invasive in several areas, including Hawaii, Lord Howe Island, and New Zealand.


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Solanum dulcamara

Solanum dulcamara, also known as bittersweet, bittersweet nightshade, bitter nightshade, blue bindweed, Amara Dulcis, climbing nightshade, fellenwort, felonwood, poisonberry, poisonflower, scarlet berry, snakeberry, trailing bittersweet, trailing nightshade, violet bloom, or woody nightshade, is a species of vine in the potato genus Solanum, family Solanaceae. It is native to Europe and Asia, and widely naturalised elsewhere, including North America, where it is an invasive problem weed. It occurs in a very wide range of habitats, from woodlands to scrubland, hedges and marshes. It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region and was first spotted in 1843.

Bittersweet is a semi-woody herbaceous perennial vine, which scrambles over other plants, capable of reaching a height of 4 m where suitable support is available, but more often 1–2 meters high. The leaves are 4–12 cm long, roughly arrowhead-shaped, and often lobed at the base. The flowers are in loose clusters of 3–20, (1–1.5 cm) across, star-shaped, with five purple petals and yellow stamens and style pointing forward. The fruit is an ovoid red berry about 1 cm long, soft and juicy, but edible for birds, which disperse the seeds widely.

Bittersweet is used in naturopathy and herbalism. Its main usage is for conditions that have an impact on the skin, mucous membrane and the membrane (synovial membrane) around the joints. Bittersweet is considered by some to be a herbal remedy for treating herpes and allergies.

Although fatal human poisonings are rare, several cases have been documented. The poison is believed to be solanine.

Other common names for Solanum dulcamara include trailing nightshade, bittersweet, trailing bittersweet, climbing nightshade, blue bindweed, bitter nightshade, fellenwort, dogwood, woody nightshade, poisonflower, poisonberry, snakeberry, and scarlet berry.

The name bittersweet is also used in some areas for some species in the genus Celastrus (elsewhere referred to as the staff vines, family Celastraceae), e.g. american bittersweet (Celastrus scandens) and oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus).


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Nerium oleander

Oleander (Nerium oleander, (pronounced /ˈnɪəriəm ˈoʊliː.ændər/), is an evergreen shrub or small tree in the dogbane family Apocynaceae. It is the only species currently classified in the genus Nerium. It has many other names. The ancient city of Volubilis in Morocco took its name from the old Latin name for the flower. Oleander is one of the most poisonous of commonly grown garden plants, and can be very toxic if ingested in sufficient quantity.

Oleander grows well in warm subtropical regions, where it is extensively used as an ornamental plant in landscapes, parks, and along roadsides. It is drought tolerant and will tolerate occasional light frost down to 10°F(-10°C). It is commonly used in landscaping freeway medians in California and other mild-winter states in the Continental United States because it is easily maintained.

It is deer resistant and tolerant of poor soils and drought. Oleander can also be grown in cooler climates in greenhouses and conservatories, or as indoor plants that can be kept outside in the summer. Oleander flowers are showy and fragrant and are grown for these reasons. Over 400 cultivars have been named, with several additional flower colours not found in wild plants having been selected, including red, purple, pink and orange; white and a variety of pinks are the most common. Many cultivars also have double flowers.

Young plants grow best in spaces where they do not have to compete with other plants for nutrients. In India it is common to see school children, pluck the oleander flowers, and suck the ends of the flower's pedicel, to reach the nectar.


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Styles of Florists

Many nations have their own style of floral arranging.

Ikebana is a style of floral design that originated in Japan. Most well known for its simplicity of line and form, Ikebana is a design style primarily practiced for personal enjoyment.

English Garden style is traditionally an English form of floral design. Stems are placed in a radial fashion and feature abundant use of seasonal flowers and foliages. These designs are often done as low, tufted mounds, or taller vase arrangements that are all-sided (360°), and incorporate garden flowers like roses, delphinium and peonies. Many florists that follow this design style do not use Baby's Breath, Carnations and Leatherleaf.

High Style is a catch-all term to describe contemporary, linear designs that highlights unique forms of both individual floral materials and of the designs themselves. Arrangements generally feature negative space and incorporate asymmetric placement of materials. The style stands in direct contrast to traditional radial arrangements such as English Garden.
High Style designs often incorporate unique, exotic or tropical flowers such as such as Bird of Paradise, Anthurium and Protea but may also employ more common blossoms.

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The Craft and Business of Florists

The Craft and Business of Florists

The craft of floristry, or being a florist, involves various skills and creativity. A florist should be able to select flowers and other floral supplies and materials that will look good together (based on principles and elements of floral design or market demands), know how to handle and arrange flowers and plants so they will remain fresh as long as possible, and would be desirable for purchase, which also involves knowledge of customers' requirements and expectations. Ability to create a variety of floral designs such as wreaths, bouquets, corsages, boutonnières/'buttonholes', permanent arrangements and other more complicated arrangements is also important.
Salix discolor used in a decorative arrangement outside a hotel in Boston, Massachusetts.
Painting of a Chinese flower basket, by Southern Song artist Li Song. Ink and color on silk, late 12th-early 13th century.

The flowers sold in florist shops typically represent the varieties abundantly available in the season but also include blossoms flown in from around the world. Basic varieties include roses, tulips, irises, orchids and lilies. Fashion sometimes plays a role in floristry; what is considered the flower that everyone needs to have today can change very quickly.

Some shops also stock gift baskets, fruits, and chocolates as well as flowers, whereas some shops will purchase these things only when needed for an order. Floral business is seasonal and is heavily influenced by the following holidays and events: Christmas, Valentine's Day, Administrative Professionals' Day, Mothers' Day, All Souls Day, Advent, Easter, weddings and funerals.[1] These occasions make up the largest part of the business, with the sale of house plants and home decor being a smaller, but more constant, part. Flowers for personal enjoyment as well as those selected to celebrate birthdays, anniversaries, thank-you's and get well wishes are also a significant portion of a florist's business.

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Sunday, May 16, 2010

The Language of Flower

The language of flowers, sometimes called floriography, was a Victorian-era means of communication in which various flowers and floral arrangements were used to send coded messages, allowing individuals to express feelings which otherwise could not be spoken. This language was most commonly communicated through Tussie-Mussies, an art which has a following today.

The nuances of the language are now mostly forgotten, but red roses still imply passionate, romantic love and pink roses a lesser affection; white roses suggest virtue and chastity and yellow roses still stand for friendship or devotion. Also commonly known meanings are sunflowers, which can indicate either haughtiness or respect – they were the favorite flower of St. Julie Billiart for this reason. Gerbera (daisy) means innocence or purity. The iris, being named for the messenger of the gods in Greek mythology, still represents the sending of a message. A pansy signifies thought, a daffodil regard, and a strand of ivy; fidelity.

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Wednesday, May 5, 2010

New Listing

If you are a florist, what you will want to be associated with? What do you wish to be listed under the directory? What preferences for floral arrangement and fresh flowers in stock? Would you cater to mass market or just a niche market? How far will you go to delivery love and send well wishes?

If I am a florist, I will want to be a florist of all sorts and love angel at the same time. There are only so few things man work for. It is either to accumulate wealth and enjoy life’s pleasures or to work for a better future for the next generation.

How do you assist someone who is clueless about flowers and gifts? Assist them to browse an online florist website and check out the items which they may fancy. The flowers and gifts come with same day delivery, making it convenient for anyone who wishes to order anytime of the day from anywhere in the world.

If listed, I will wish to be a Dream florist to fulfil the heartfelt desires of the people.